China's foreign trade in steel products Analysis
Time:2015-1-10 16:57:04From:本站原创Hits:1868
[Economic Forum] China's foreign trade in steel products Analysis Yu Guo (Northeastern University of Finance, Dalian 116023) [Abstract] Since 1996, 11 consecutive years, China has become the world's largest steel producer and consumer. In 2006, China became the first secondary steel net exporter, exports rise, but we are also faced with frequent trade frictions such as iron and steel can not be optimistic about the issue, thought-provoking. This article focuses on foreign trade of China's steel product problems and the corresponding countermeasures. [Key words] China; iron and steel products; export [CLC] F746. 12 [Document code] B [Article ID] 1002--2880 (2008) 04--0027--02 steel industry is the basic raw material industry, the National economic status is important, especially for our case, the steel industry is an important strategic industry. Since 2000, China's steel industry entered a rapid growth period, the average annual growth rate of steel production reached 20%. China's steel production in 1996 exceeded 100 million tons of steel production the world superpower, China's steel production in 2003 exceeded 200 million tons, China's crude steel production exceeded 50 million tons with a 37-year period, exceeded 100 million tons with 10 years to break through 200 million tons with a 7-year period, this is an amazing speed. Now, China has for 11 years to become the world's largest producer and consumer of steel, iron and steel to be a truly great country. According to statistics, global crude steel production in 2006 increased by over 10 years ago, 165.2%, an increase of over 5 years ago, 145.7%, output growth is mainly from my rub, will trigger a chain effect in the international arena, leading to other countries followed suit, as China's steel exports to set barriers, deterioration of China's trade environment. According to the Ministry of Commerce statistics, in 2006, 11 countries have taken 27 anti-dumping and countervailing measures on China's iron and steel products (including steel, ferroalloy and steel products) survey, involving an amount of $ 900 million. Early February 2007, the United States complained to the WTO, including China's iron and steel products, including existence of so-called "trade subsidies," July, the United States five steel producers require; 6 Chinese welded steel pipe exports to the U.S. anti-dumping and subsidy investigations . June 12, China held trade talks with the EU, the two sides have discussed the issue of steel exports. (2) the existence of China's steel export product structure is irrational, the problem of low-grade products. Many of China's iron and steel enterprises, but generally smaller, industry concentration is low, many companies with obsolete equipment, low level of technology, and the blind pursuit of production, on the one hand caused by the domestic iron and steel products to steel, small and medium wood, wire and other low-tech, low-value-added products overproduction, oversupply, decreased level of profitability; the other hand, hot-rolled, cold-rolled sheet and other high-tech, high value-added high-end products but can not meet domestic demand, heavily dependent on imports. Adjusting to reflect the process of product structure not suited to the structure. Production of high value-added sheet of technical equipment slow growth, and low-tech equipment, long products grew faster. Although China is the world's largest steel producer, but also very quickly become the world's top five steel importers. 3 units of energy consumption of steel products is much higher than the advanced international level, medium-sized countries and Asia. In 2006 China's crude steel output was 418.8 million tons, compared to 2005 increased 17.7 percent, an increase of over 10 years ago 413.8%. In addition, China's share of world crude steel production also increased in 1996, the proportion was 13.5% in 2006, the proportion has reached 33.8 percent, more than 1Π. In 2006, three major crude steel producing countries were China (418.8 million tons), 3 Japan (116.2 million tons) and the United States (9850 tons). In recent years, China's steel product exports increased significantly in 2004, China's steel product exports increased by 203.41%, in 2007 China's steel product exports is expected to reach 55 million tons. In recent years, China's steel product exports mainly due to substantial growth in the international market demand, increasing the competitiveness of our products. With the United States and Europe continue to shut down production cost, large capacity gradually to shift our country, Europe and North America production continued to decline, or slow growth in the market analysis and forecasting, far below the growth rate of consumer demand, resulting on the import of China heavily dependent on the product. First, China's steel exports in the problems of China's steel industry has made considerable progress, a steel big country, but not the iron and steel power, China's steel products export situation is still not optimistic, there are the following questions. 1 Because of China's steel exports surge, China's steel mills exporting countries and to the international advanced level than the energy consumption by 10% to 15%, while the equipment is relatively backward SMEs, energy consumption than the international advanced level by 50%. China's total reserves of the resources of the world's No. 3, but the per capita ranks No. 53, only the world per capita consumption of 1Π, mineral resource constraints have an impact on China's sustainable economic and social development by the two major "bottleneck" 2006 China's net exports of steel. Material 34 million tons, equivalent to about 119 million tons exported reserves, 27.2 million tons of coal and 170 billion kWh. Too much too much output the output of steel is equivalent to limited resources, exacerbated by China's coal, electricity and transport of tension, and increased environmental pollution. Mainly due to the problems mentioned above: (1) industry concentration is low. China's total steel mill 196 (filed in the Iron and Steel Association), of which 81 state-owned enterprises, including rolling mills, including up to 20 if more than one million. In 2006, China's top five iron and steel production plants concentration of 20.3%, while Japan the figure was 75%, EU 74% before 6.(2) core technology off the area is too concentrated, resulting in China's steel industry as an international trade protection and relief of the hardest hit. At present, China's steel exports are mainly concentrated in South Korea, the United States and the European Union, these three steel exports accounted for nearly half of total exports. This is even more exacerbated by the steel trade with these countries Mount --27-- Guo: China's foreign trade in steel products Analysis of buildings after the international advanced level. (3) resource constraints will be long. In 2006, China imported iron ore 326 million tons, an increase of 18.6 percent, foreign import dependency of 51.1%, but the bargaining power is not high, China's import capacity and freight companies in the control area, but also in a passive position . (4) high energy consumption, environmental pressure. In 2006, I made comprehensive energy consumption of steel 645.12 kg of standard coal, with the world advanced level, there are still more than 10% compared to the gap. Second, China's steel exports to solve this problem 1. Accelerate the restructuring of the steel joint enterprises, enhance the competitiveness of the steel industry. Iron and steel industry is a typical industry with economies of scale, industry concentration is low not only result in vicious competition within the industry, but also weaken the steel industry as a buyer to purchase the necessary raw materials, energy and other resources of bargaining power, but also increased the volatility of the industry nature, vulnerable to a variety of other factors. Therefore, we must accelerate the consolidation and reorganization of China's iron and steel enterprises, the elimination of backward enterprises, expand business scale, to develop an internationally competitive enterprise groups. (2) to achieve the upgrading of the structure of steel products. On the one hand, China has become a veritable steel production and consumption of power, on the other hand, due to a lack of domestic production, imports per year million tons of high value-added products, export of low value-added products, which can be seen in China's steel industry international division of labor is lower, is basically a domestic demand-oriented industries. Today, more and more attention around the world to improve the quality of steel products and high value-added products have become the main direction of development. Large steel enterprises can not only attach importance to the immediate operation but faster price growth and low value-added products, is necessary to develop high value-added, high-end product responsibility; medium-sized steel enterprises should strive to carry out technological transformation and enhance the level of equipment. By optimizing product mix, and gradually increase the proportion of high value-added products. 3 improve the early warning mechanism, good use of rules dealing with trade disputes. Effectively deal with trade disputes, friction is a key to see the problems before they occur, from the source to be addressed, rather than waiting for problems after the remedy. For now, the Ministry of Commerce as director of the executive branch of China's foreign trade, should bear more of the supervision and guidance of China's foreign trade responsibility. Other local governments should also have to cope with those events and foreign anti-dumping large enterprises to provide funds to spend on support and encourage these enterprises to actively participate in responding. Full use of WTO rules, safeguard China's interests. 4 to establish a stable base of raw materials, raw material resources to improve the level of protection.Japan, South Korea, Western Europe and other serious lack of resources in countries and regions, the iron and steel enterprises are established in foreign iron ore joint venture enterprise, or the major mining companies with foreign strategic alliance with these countries and regions, although the quantity of ore imported large but the risk small. At present, although China's participation in the number of foreign mining companies are increasing the size of the expansion, but with China's growing imports of iron and steel industry compared to the amount of ore is still very limited.Currently provided through the joint venture ore imports accounted for less than the proportion of 20%, the majority still did not establish a stable supply of raw materials from overseas bases, generally rely on imported ore trade, the protection of the ore supply is low, price volatilityrisks. Therefore, China from a strategic point of view, early on how to establish a stable base of raw materials, especially iron and steel to encourage more enterprises to go abroad, to increase the intensity of offshore mining operation, raw material suppliers of foreign capital investment. At the same time to speed up the construction of large-scale ore terminal, marine construction fleet and port construction of the railway transportation capacity, the formation of a reliable security system in foreign countries for mining, ore loading and unloading to improve transport capacity, reduced logistics costs. 5 to increase investment in the steel industry, development of science and technology education. At present, most steel companies' large and small "repeat configuration, similar products, specialized process, is low, the lack of leading products, the quality of workers is generally not high, low labor productivity. Reasons for the low labor productivity can be a low concentration, lack of R & D funding, led to the innovation ability, it may be due to low quality of labor. To this end, on the one hand to increase investment in science and technology, the production, study and research combined, will be closely linked to research and development and technological innovation, and promote scientific and technological achievements into productive forces; other hand, vigorously develop education, encourage-the-job learning and training a large number of high-quality industrial army. The only way to improve the level of technology and equipment to solve China's steel industry, high energy consumption and serious environmental pollution problems, in order to promote new technologies, product development, in order to truly improve labor productivity. 6 self-discipline, give full play to the role of industry associations.To compete in today's market to win, the most fundamental is that business, industry competitiveness in foreign trade, the government, industry associations, industry, department, business coordination, joint efforts, in particular, industry associations, play an an important role. But compared to the foreign trade associations, industry associations in China is still very immature, but also far to play its due role. After joining the WTO, China should accelerate the establishment of industry associations, to strengthen its functions and improve its role, making it a major deal with trade friction coordinator. [References] [1] Zhuang Rui. The status quo of China's major imports of raw materials and its impact on economic security [J]. Economists, 2005 (5). [2] Shen Yao, Hao Yan International Steel trade friction after another of the reasons Analysis - - and on China's steel industry's international competitiveness [J]. International Economics and Trade Research, 2003 (6). [3] Yin Xiangshuo, Xu Jianbin. backward countries on terms of trade, comparative advantage and technological progress [J]. World Economic Forum, 2002 (6). [4] Gu Chunfang. the use of iron and steel trade remedy policies to promote the development of the steel industry of China Ministry of Commerce official website, 2005 - 10 - 24. Abstract: Since1996, China has been the biggest country of producing and consuming iron and steel product. In 2006 China became the net export country of iron and steel product and the amount is incessantly increasing. But, problem such as trade friction also increased. The article discussed the reason and the countermeasure to this phe2 nomenon. Key words: China; iron and steel product; problem
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